A brief from the UNE/University of Eastern Finland course on MEAs, Human and Environmental Rights 22-30 August 2018

There are various international human rights instruments the first being the 1948 UN Declaration on Human Rights whose main objective was to protect and promote justice and dignity for all human beings. It can be said that experiences of the world wars stimulated the interest of having a universal instrument to promote justice and protect human dignity. There were many acts of human rights abuses and degradation of human dignity prior to and during the world wars. Many other human rights instruments were adopted or developed to safeguard specific rights or specific vulnerable groups. These include the following instruments:

                                                                                                                                           Date          Monitoring body

ICERDInternational Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination21 Dec 1965CERD
ICCPRInternational Covenant on Civil and Political Rights16 Dec 1966CCPR
ICESCRInternational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights16 Dec 1966CESCR
CEDAWConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women18 Dec 1979CEDAW
CATConvention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment10 Dec 1984CAT
CRCConvention on the Rights of the Child20 Nov 1989CRC
ICMWInternational Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families18 Dec 1990CMW
CPEDInternational Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance20 Dec 2006CED
CRPDConvention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities13 Dec 2006CRPD
ICESCR – OPOptional Protocol to the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights10 Dec 2008CESCR
ICCPR-OP1Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights16 Dec 1966CCPR
ICCPR-OP2Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty15 Dec 1989CCPR
OP-CEDAWOptional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women10 Dec 1999CEDAW
OP-CRC-ACOptional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict25 May 2000CRC
OP-CRC-SCOptional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography25 May 2000CRC
OP-CRC-ICOptional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure14 Apr 2014CRC
OP-CATOptional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment18 Dec 2002SPT
OP-CRPDOptional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities12 Dec 2006

However, there it was later realized there is a strong disconnect between Human Right and Multilateral Environment Agreements though the two are closely interlinked and intertwined. In other words there is a strong relationship between human and environmental rights. Some or majority of human rights depend on the state of the environment. For example access to safe water depend on the state of the ecosystem and so is access to other human rights such as adequate, nutritious and safe food, access to energy, access to decent and green jobs, etc.

There are several vivid examples around the world and famous cases in Africa include those involving Shell in Ogoniland and the Abidjan incident in which a foreign vessel deliberately dumped toxic waste in Cote d Ivoire.

In an attempt to narrow the gap between human and environmental rights instrument he UN appointed a rapporteur in 2012 (Mr. John Knox) to explore linkages. He and his team developed a framework which identified 2 principles: Principles 1 required states to ensure clean, healthy and sustainable environment in order to respect, protect and fulfill human rights. Principle 2 requested states to respect, protect and fulfill human rights in order to ensure a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment.

In this framework states were assigned obligations that are expected to respect, protect and fulfill human rights including obligations to carry out the assessment of environmental and human rights impact, assuring public access to environmental information, public participation in decision making, access to effective remedies, education and public awareness, prohibition of discrimination, etc.

The UN Environment (UNE) on its part has embarked on an Environmental Rights Initiative that constitute 3 dimensions: Environment as a prerequisite for enjoying human rights, procedural rights as essential for good environment decision-making and the right to safe, healthy and ecologically balanced environment as a human right in itself.

Some regional groups have adopted Human Rights instruments that have been used to address cases related to environmental rights while others have developed human rights instruments that cover issues of environmental rights. For example courts in Europe have made use of the European Convention on Human Rights (1950) to make rulings that have taken note of environmental rights. In Africa courts have used the African Charter on Human Rights (1991) particularly Article24 to address cases related to environmental rights. The Latin America and Caribbean ESCAZU Agreement is one of the regional instruments that cover both human and environmental rights in its provisions.

There are also some national constitutions that have included environmental rights in addition to human rights but there number in Africa is small.

Examples of challenges encountered by people and activists

  1. Forced removal from ancestral lands without compensation
  2. Murder of environmental defenders
  3. Pollution of water, air and soil
  4. Denial of access to resources, spiritual laces, etc
  5. Stealing and plundering of resources
  6. Lack of remedies
  7. Exclusion in decision making

Some possible solutions

  • There is a need of building the capacity of activists on Human Rights Impact Assessment (HRIA)
  • There is a need to reformulate existing EIAs and/or ESIA in order to mainstream environmental rights
  • All investments local and foreign should be subjected to HRIA

Joensuu University, Finland

Dr. Yahya Msangi

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